|Pages (from-to)||1019 - 1032|
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology|
|State||Published - May 2007|
In this paper, an advanced site-specific image-based ray-tracing model is developed that enables multielement outdoor propagation analysis to be performed in dense urban environments. Sophisticated optimization techniques, such as preprocessing the environment database using object partitioning, visibility determination, diffraction image tree precalculation, and parallel processing are used to improve run-time efficiency. Wideband and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) site-specific predictions (including derived parameters such as theoretic capacity and eigenstructure) are compared with outdoor site-specific measurements at 1.92 GHz. Results show strong levels of agreement, with a mean path-loss error of 2 dB and a mean normalized-capacity error of 1.5 b/s/Hz. Physical-layer packet-error rate (PER) results are generated and compared for a range of MIMO-orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) schemes using measured and predicted multielement channel data. A mean Eb/N 0 error (compared to PER results from measured channel data) of 4 and 1 dB is observed for spatial-multiplexing and space-time block-code schemes, respectively. Results indicate that the ray-tracing model successfully predicts key channel parameters (including MIMO channel structure) and thus enable the accurate prediction of PER and service coverage for emerging MIMO-OFDM networks such as 802.11n and 802.16e
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Rose publication type: Journal article
Sponsorship: The work of K. H. Ng was supported
in part by the IST-2001-32549 ROMANTIK Project.
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- propagation, multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO), ray tracing, scattering