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A novel quantification of 3D directional spread from small-scale fading analysis

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Conference on Communications (ICC), Istanbul, Turkey
Publisher or commissioning bodyInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Pages1699 - 1704
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)1424403553
StatePublished - Jun 2006
EventInternational Conference on Communications (ICC) - Istanbul, Turkey


ConferenceInternational Conference on Communications (ICC)
Period1/06/06 → …


The directional dispersion of multipath energy arriving at the receiver is an important quantity, as increasing it leads to lower correlation between spatial diversity elements. The ‘RMS angular spread’ metric, commonly used to measure this, is only applicable for relatively small angles in the 2-D plane. The quantification of the 3-D directional spread is not straighforward, and must be justified analytically by showing its relation to spatial selectivity, and hence spatial correlation. In this paper, an analysis of the second order moments of spatial fading has been used to define a spatial covariance matrix, which fully describes the second order moments of the directional energy distribution. An eigenvalue decomposition of this matrix has been used to propose a concise quantification of directional spread that is applicable for arbitrary distribution of multipath rays or clusters in 3-D directions. The effect of array orientation has also been investigated

Additional information

Conference Proceedings/Title of Journal: IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2006. ICC '06 Rose publication type: Conference contribution Additional information: With accompanying conference poster Sponsorship: Arindam Pal would like to thank ORS UK and the University of Bristol for the postgraduate scholarship Terms of use: Copyright © 2006 IEEE. Reprinted from Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications. This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Such permission of the IEEE does not in any way imply IEEE endorsement of any of the University of Bristol's products or services. Internal or personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution must be obtained from the IEEE by writing to By choosing to view this document, you agree to all provisions of the copyright laws protecting it.


International Conference on Communications (ICC)

Duration1 Jun 2006 → …

Event: Conference

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