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Development of a standard test to assess negative reinforcement learning in horses

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Development of a standard test to assess negative reinforcement learning in horses. / Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Malmkvist, Jens; Nicol, Christine J.; Christensen, Janne Winther.

In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 169, 01.08.2015, p. 38-42.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Ahrendt, LP, Labouriau, R, Malmkvist, J, Nicol, CJ & Christensen, JW 2015, 'Development of a standard test to assess negative reinforcement learning in horses' Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol. 169, pp. 38-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2015.05.005

APA

Ahrendt, L. P., Labouriau, R., Malmkvist, J., Nicol, C. J., & Christensen, J. W. (2015). Development of a standard test to assess negative reinforcement learning in horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 169, 38-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2015.05.005

Vancouver

Ahrendt LP, Labouriau R, Malmkvist J, Nicol CJ, Christensen JW. Development of a standard test to assess negative reinforcement learning in horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 2015 Aug 1;169:38-42. Available from, DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2015.05.005

Author

Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup ; Labouriau, Rodrigo ; Malmkvist, Jens ; Nicol, Christine J. ; Christensen, Janne Winther. / Development of a standard test to assess negative reinforcement learning in horses. In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 2015 ; Vol. 169. pp. 38-42

Bibtex

@article{6ac00875b1794b08b0071397fbdb7d50,
title = "Development of a standard test to assess negative reinforcement learning in horses",
abstract = "Most horses are trained by negative reinforcement. Currently, however, no standardised test for evaluating horses' negative reinforcement learning ability is available. The aim of this study was to develop an objective test to investigate negative reinforcement learning in horses. Twenty-four Icelandic horses (3 years old) were included in this study. The horses were tested in a pressure-release task on three separate days with 10, 7 and 5 trials on each side, respectively. Each trial consisted of pressure being applied on the hindquarter with an algometer. The force of the pressure was increased until the horse moved laterally away from the point of pressure. There was a significant decrease in required force over trials on the first test day (P < 0.001), but not the second and third day. The intercepts on days 2 and 3 differed significantly from day 1 (P < 0.001), but not each other. Significantly stronger force was required on the right side compared to the left (P < 0.001), but there was no difference between first and second side tested (P=. 0.56). Individual performance was evaluated by median-force and the change in force over trials on the first test day. These two measures may explain different characteristics of negative reinforcement learning. In conclusion, this study presents a novel, standardised test for evaluating negative reinforcement learning ability in horses.",
keywords = "Algometry, Horse behaviour, Horse training, Learning performance, Operant conditioning, Pressure-release",
author = "Ahrendt, {Line Peerstrup} and Rodrigo Labouriau and Jens Malmkvist and Nicol, {Christine J.} and Christensen, {Janne Winther}",
year = "2015",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.applanim.2015.05.005",
language = "English",
volume = "169",
pages = "38--42",
journal = "Applied Animal Behaviour Science",
issn = "0168-1591",
publisher = "Elsevier B.V.",

}

RIS - suitable for import to EndNote

TY - JOUR

T1 - Development of a standard test to assess negative reinforcement learning in horses

AU - Ahrendt,Line Peerstrup

AU - Labouriau,Rodrigo

AU - Malmkvist,Jens

AU - Nicol,Christine J.

AU - Christensen,Janne Winther

PY - 2015/8/1

Y1 - 2015/8/1

N2 - Most horses are trained by negative reinforcement. Currently, however, no standardised test for evaluating horses' negative reinforcement learning ability is available. The aim of this study was to develop an objective test to investigate negative reinforcement learning in horses. Twenty-four Icelandic horses (3 years old) were included in this study. The horses were tested in a pressure-release task on three separate days with 10, 7 and 5 trials on each side, respectively. Each trial consisted of pressure being applied on the hindquarter with an algometer. The force of the pressure was increased until the horse moved laterally away from the point of pressure. There was a significant decrease in required force over trials on the first test day (P < 0.001), but not the second and third day. The intercepts on days 2 and 3 differed significantly from day 1 (P < 0.001), but not each other. Significantly stronger force was required on the right side compared to the left (P < 0.001), but there was no difference between first and second side tested (P=. 0.56). Individual performance was evaluated by median-force and the change in force over trials on the first test day. These two measures may explain different characteristics of negative reinforcement learning. In conclusion, this study presents a novel, standardised test for evaluating negative reinforcement learning ability in horses.

AB - Most horses are trained by negative reinforcement. Currently, however, no standardised test for evaluating horses' negative reinforcement learning ability is available. The aim of this study was to develop an objective test to investigate negative reinforcement learning in horses. Twenty-four Icelandic horses (3 years old) were included in this study. The horses were tested in a pressure-release task on three separate days with 10, 7 and 5 trials on each side, respectively. Each trial consisted of pressure being applied on the hindquarter with an algometer. The force of the pressure was increased until the horse moved laterally away from the point of pressure. There was a significant decrease in required force over trials on the first test day (P < 0.001), but not the second and third day. The intercepts on days 2 and 3 differed significantly from day 1 (P < 0.001), but not each other. Significantly stronger force was required on the right side compared to the left (P < 0.001), but there was no difference between first and second side tested (P=. 0.56). Individual performance was evaluated by median-force and the change in force over trials on the first test day. These two measures may explain different characteristics of negative reinforcement learning. In conclusion, this study presents a novel, standardised test for evaluating negative reinforcement learning ability in horses.

KW - Algometry

KW - Horse behaviour

KW - Horse training

KW - Learning performance

KW - Operant conditioning

KW - Pressure-release

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U2 - 10.1016/j.applanim.2015.05.005

DO - 10.1016/j.applanim.2015.05.005

M3 - Article

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EP - 42

JO - Applied Animal Behaviour Science

T2 - Applied Animal Behaviour Science

JF - Applied Animal Behaviour Science

SN - 0168-1591

ER -