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Frozen suit: designing a changeable stiffness suit and its application to increase realism in games

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Publisher or commissioning bodyAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)9781450346559
DateAccepted/In press - 14 Dec 2016
DatePublished (current) - 2 May 2017


We present the concept of Frozen Suit, a type of clothing that restricts users' movements at joint positions (e.g. elbow, knee) via a changeable stiffness jamming material. The suit can "freeze" users' body parts, for example during a game in order to provide the physical sensation of being frozen by an enemy. In this paper we first present the Frozen Suit concept and its potential applications. We then systematically investigate how to design jamming patches in order to sufficiently restrict an arm or a leg. In particular we used low-fidelity prototypes to explore the restricting power of different material and particles. In order to push this analysis further we conducted a controlled experiment in order to compare the perceived stiffness of different patches sizes attached to the elbow. We performed a paired comparison experience and used a Bradley-Terry-Luce model to analyze the subjective feedback from participants. We found that 20cm long x 7cm large is the most restrictive patch and that an increase in patch area correlates with an increase in perceived stiffness (quadratic). We finish by presenting a use case application with a game that we implemented where enemies can freeze the player.

    Research areas

  • Changeable stiffness, Jamming, Clothing, Wearable, Haptic feedback, Paired comparison experiment, H5.2 , User interface

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  • Full-text PDF (accepted author manuscript)

    Rights statement: This is the author accepted manuscript (AAM). The final published version (version of record) is available online via ACM at Please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.

    Accepted author manuscript, 679 KB, PDF document


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