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International Organizations, NGOs, and Police Implementation of Domestic Violence Policies in Liberia and Nicaragua

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
JournalPolitics and Gender
DateAccepted/In press - 17 Dec 2018


Domestic violence is the predominant form of violence against women in most countries in Africa and Latin America. Scholars have theorized the adoption of domestic violence laws and policies in both regions. However, policy implementation is understudied and under- theorized. Therefore, we compare how external actors — international and women’s organizations— have influenced police officers’ implementation of domestic violence policies in Liberia and Nicaragua. We propose the Transnational Implementation Process (TIP) to describe how external actors have employed training, institutional and policy restructuring, and monitoring, to influence police behavior at the street-level. The effects of these strategies have been conditional on the political environment. We identify two patterns of external influence on street-level implementation: internationally-led and domestically- supported implementation in Liberia, with domestically-led and internationally-supported implementation in Nicaragua.

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