Skip to content

Late inception of a resiliently oxygenated upper ocean

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Wanyi Lu
  • Andy Ridgwell
  • Ellen Thomas
  • Dalton S. Hardisty
  • Genming Luo
  • Thomas J. Algeo
  • Matthew R. Saltzman
  • Benjamin C. Gill
  • Yanan Shen
  • Hong Fei Ling
  • Cole T. Edwards
  • Michael T. Whalen
  • Xiaoli Zhou
  • Kristina M. Gutchess
  • Li Jin
  • Rosalind E.M. Rickaby
  • Hugh C. Jenkyns
  • Timothy W. Lyons
  • Timothy M. Lenton
  • Lee R. Kump
  • Zunli Lu
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174-177
Number of pages7
Issue number6398
DateAccepted/In press - 17 May 2018
DatePublished (current) - 31 May 2018


Rising oceanic and atmospheric oxygen levels through time have been crucial to enhanced habitability of surface Earth environments. Few redox proxies can track secular variations in dissolved oxygen concentrations ([O2]) around threshold levels for metazoan survival in the upper ocean. We present an extensive compilation of iodine to calcium ratios (I/Ca) in marine carbonates. Our record supports a major rise in atmospheric pO2 at ~400 million years ago (Ma), and reveals a step-change in the oxygenation of the upper ocean to relatively sustainable near-modern conditions at ~200 Ma. An Earth system model demonstrates that a shift in organic matter remineralization to greater depths, which may have been due to increasing size and biomineralization of eukaryotic plankton, likely drove the I/Ca signals at ~200 Ma.

Download statistics

No data available



  • Full-text PDF (accepted author manuscript)

    Rights statement: This is the author accepted manuscript (AAM). The final published version (version of record) is available online via American Association for the Advancement of Science at . Please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.

    Accepted author manuscript, 2 MB, PDF document

    Licence: Unspecified


View research connections

Related faculties, schools or groups