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Recent Trends in Stratospheric Chlorine From Very Short-Lived Substances

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Recent Trends in Stratospheric Chlorine From Very Short-Lived Substances. / Hossaini, Ryan; Atlas, Elliot; Dhomse, Sandip S.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Bernath, Peter F.; Fernando, Anton M.; Mühle, Jens; Leeson, Amber A.; Montzka, Stephen A.; Feng, Wuhu; Harrison, Jeremy J.; Krummel, Paul; Vollmer, Martin K.; Reimann, Stefan; O'Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Maione, Michela; Arduini, Jgor; Lunder, Chris R.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 18.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Hossaini, R, Atlas, E, Dhomse, SS, Chipperfield, MP, Bernath, PF, Fernando, AM, Mühle, J, Leeson, AA, Montzka, SA, Feng, W, Harrison, JJ, Krummel, P, Vollmer, MK, Reimann, S, O'Doherty, S, Young, D, Maione, M, Arduini, J & Lunder, CR 2019, 'Recent Trends in Stratospheric Chlorine From Very Short-Lived Substances', Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD029400

APA

Hossaini, R., Atlas, E., Dhomse, S. S., Chipperfield, M. P., Bernath, P. F., Fernando, A. M., ... Lunder, C. R. (2019). Recent Trends in Stratospheric Chlorine From Very Short-Lived Substances. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD029400

Vancouver

Hossaini R, Atlas E, Dhomse SS, Chipperfield MP, Bernath PF, Fernando AM et al. Recent Trends in Stratospheric Chlorine From Very Short-Lived Substances. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 2019 Jan 18. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD029400

Author

Hossaini, Ryan ; Atlas, Elliot ; Dhomse, Sandip S. ; Chipperfield, Martyn P. ; Bernath, Peter F. ; Fernando, Anton M. ; Mühle, Jens ; Leeson, Amber A. ; Montzka, Stephen A. ; Feng, Wuhu ; Harrison, Jeremy J. ; Krummel, Paul ; Vollmer, Martin K. ; Reimann, Stefan ; O'Doherty, Simon ; Young, Dickon ; Maione, Michela ; Arduini, Jgor ; Lunder, Chris R. / Recent Trends in Stratospheric Chlorine From Very Short-Lived Substances. In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 2019.

Bibtex

@article{4e25063819a14f169432b7b6d188e987,
title = "Recent Trends in Stratospheric Chlorine From Very Short-Lived Substances",
abstract = "Very short-lived substances (VSLS), including dichloromethane (CH 2 Cl 2 ), chloroform (CHCl 3 ), perchloroethylene (C 2 Cl 4 ), and 1,2-dichloroethane (C 2 H 4 Cl 2 ), are a stratospheric chlorine source and therefore contribute to ozone depletion. We quantify stratospheric chlorine trends from these VSLS (VSLCl tot ) using a chemical transport model and atmospheric measurements, including novel high-altitude aircraft data from the NASA VIRGAS (2015) and POSIDON (2016) missions. We estimate VSLCl tot increased from 69 (±14) parts per trillion (ppt) Cl in 2000 to 111 (±22) ppt Cl in 2017, with >80{\%} delivered to the stratosphere through source gas injection, and the remainder from product gases. The modeled evolution of chlorine source gas injection agrees well with historical aircraft data, which corroborate reported surface CH 2 Cl 2 increases since the mid-2000s. The relative contribution of VSLS to total stratospheric chlorine increased from ~2{\%} in 2000 to ~3.4{\%} in 2017, reflecting both VSLS growth and decreases in long-lived halocarbons. We derive a mean VSLCl tot growth rate of 3.8 (±0.3) ppt Cl/year between 2004 and 2017, though year-to-year growth rates are variable and were small or negative in the period 2015–2017. Whether this is a transient effect, or longer-term stabilization, requires monitoring. In the upper stratosphere, the modeled rate of HCl decline (2004–2017) is −5.2{\%} per decade with VSLS included, in good agreement to ACE satellite data (−4.8{\%} per decade), and 15{\%} slower than a model simulation without VSLS. Thus, VSLS have offset a portion of stratospheric chlorine reductions since the mid-2000s.",
keywords = "chlorine, chloroform, dichloromethane, ozone, stratosphere, VSLS",
author = "Ryan Hossaini and Elliot Atlas and Dhomse, {Sandip S.} and Chipperfield, {Martyn P.} and Bernath, {Peter F.} and Fernando, {Anton M.} and Jens M{\"u}hle and Leeson, {Amber A.} and Montzka, {Stephen A.} and Wuhu Feng and Harrison, {Jeremy J.} and Paul Krummel and Vollmer, {Martin K.} and Stefan Reimann and Simon O'Doherty and Dickon Young and Michela Maione and Jgor Arduini and Lunder, {Chris R.}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1029/2018JD029400",
language = "English",
journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres",
issn = "2169-897X",
publisher = "American Geophysical Union",

}

RIS - suitable for import to EndNote

TY - JOUR

T1 - Recent Trends in Stratospheric Chlorine From Very Short-Lived Substances

AU - Hossaini, Ryan

AU - Atlas, Elliot

AU - Dhomse, Sandip S.

AU - Chipperfield, Martyn P.

AU - Bernath, Peter F.

AU - Fernando, Anton M.

AU - Mühle, Jens

AU - Leeson, Amber A.

AU - Montzka, Stephen A.

AU - Feng, Wuhu

AU - Harrison, Jeremy J.

AU - Krummel, Paul

AU - Vollmer, Martin K.

AU - Reimann, Stefan

AU - O'Doherty, Simon

AU - Young, Dickon

AU - Maione, Michela

AU - Arduini, Jgor

AU - Lunder, Chris R.

PY - 2019/1/18

Y1 - 2019/1/18

N2 - Very short-lived substances (VSLS), including dichloromethane (CH 2 Cl 2 ), chloroform (CHCl 3 ), perchloroethylene (C 2 Cl 4 ), and 1,2-dichloroethane (C 2 H 4 Cl 2 ), are a stratospheric chlorine source and therefore contribute to ozone depletion. We quantify stratospheric chlorine trends from these VSLS (VSLCl tot ) using a chemical transport model and atmospheric measurements, including novel high-altitude aircraft data from the NASA VIRGAS (2015) and POSIDON (2016) missions. We estimate VSLCl tot increased from 69 (±14) parts per trillion (ppt) Cl in 2000 to 111 (±22) ppt Cl in 2017, with >80% delivered to the stratosphere through source gas injection, and the remainder from product gases. The modeled evolution of chlorine source gas injection agrees well with historical aircraft data, which corroborate reported surface CH 2 Cl 2 increases since the mid-2000s. The relative contribution of VSLS to total stratospheric chlorine increased from ~2% in 2000 to ~3.4% in 2017, reflecting both VSLS growth and decreases in long-lived halocarbons. We derive a mean VSLCl tot growth rate of 3.8 (±0.3) ppt Cl/year between 2004 and 2017, though year-to-year growth rates are variable and were small or negative in the period 2015–2017. Whether this is a transient effect, or longer-term stabilization, requires monitoring. In the upper stratosphere, the modeled rate of HCl decline (2004–2017) is −5.2% per decade with VSLS included, in good agreement to ACE satellite data (−4.8% per decade), and 15% slower than a model simulation without VSLS. Thus, VSLS have offset a portion of stratospheric chlorine reductions since the mid-2000s.

AB - Very short-lived substances (VSLS), including dichloromethane (CH 2 Cl 2 ), chloroform (CHCl 3 ), perchloroethylene (C 2 Cl 4 ), and 1,2-dichloroethane (C 2 H 4 Cl 2 ), are a stratospheric chlorine source and therefore contribute to ozone depletion. We quantify stratospheric chlorine trends from these VSLS (VSLCl tot ) using a chemical transport model and atmospheric measurements, including novel high-altitude aircraft data from the NASA VIRGAS (2015) and POSIDON (2016) missions. We estimate VSLCl tot increased from 69 (±14) parts per trillion (ppt) Cl in 2000 to 111 (±22) ppt Cl in 2017, with >80% delivered to the stratosphere through source gas injection, and the remainder from product gases. The modeled evolution of chlorine source gas injection agrees well with historical aircraft data, which corroborate reported surface CH 2 Cl 2 increases since the mid-2000s. The relative contribution of VSLS to total stratospheric chlorine increased from ~2% in 2000 to ~3.4% in 2017, reflecting both VSLS growth and decreases in long-lived halocarbons. We derive a mean VSLCl tot growth rate of 3.8 (±0.3) ppt Cl/year between 2004 and 2017, though year-to-year growth rates are variable and were small or negative in the period 2015–2017. Whether this is a transient effect, or longer-term stabilization, requires monitoring. In the upper stratosphere, the modeled rate of HCl decline (2004–2017) is −5.2% per decade with VSLS included, in good agreement to ACE satellite data (−4.8% per decade), and 15% slower than a model simulation without VSLS. Thus, VSLS have offset a portion of stratospheric chlorine reductions since the mid-2000s.

KW - chlorine

KW - chloroform

KW - dichloromethane

KW - ozone

KW - stratosphere

KW - VSLS

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85060538277&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1029/2018JD029400

DO - 10.1029/2018JD029400

M3 - Article

JO - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

JF - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

SN - 2169-897X

ER -