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Slow down: Behavioural and physiological effects of reducing eating rate

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@article{e1675d0b80bc4dcdb3a6bf54abe5218c,
title = "Slow down: Behavioural and physiological effects of reducing eating rate",
abstract = "Slowing eating rate appears to be an effective strategy for reducing food intake. This feasibility study investigated the effect of eating rate on post-meal responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), plasma gastrointestinal hormone concentrations, appetite ratings, memory for recent eating, and snack consumption. Twenty-one participants (mean age 23 years with healthy body mass index) were randomly assigned to consume a 600 kcal meal at either a “normal” or “slow” rate (6 vs. 24 min). Immediately afterwards, participants rated meal enjoyment and satisfaction. FMRI was performed 2-h post-meal during a memory task about the meal. Appetite, peptide YY, and ghrelin were measured at baseline and every 30 min for 3 h. Participants were given an ad-libitum snack three hours post-meal. Results were reported as effect sizes (Cohen’s d) due to the feasibility sample size. The normal rate group found the meal more enjoyable (effect size = 0.5) and satisfying (effect size = 0.6). Two hours post-meal, the slow rate group reported greater fullness (effect size = 0.7) and more accurate portion size memory (effect sizes = 0.4), with a linear relationship between time taken to make portion size decisions and the BOLD response in satiety and reward brain regions. Ghrelin suppression post-meal was greater in the slow rate group (effect size = 0.8). Three hours post-meal, the slow rate group consumed on average 25{\%} less energy from snacks (effect size = 0.5). These data offer novel insights about mechanisms underlying how eating rate affects food intake and have implications for the design of effective weight-management interventions.",
keywords = "Appetite hormones, Eating rate, Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), Meal enjoyment, Memory for recent eating, Satiety",
author = "Katherine Hawton and Danielle Ferriday and Peter Rogers and Paula Toner and Jonathan Brooks and Jeffrey Holly and Kalina Biernacka and Julian Hamilton-Shield and Elanor Hinton",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
doi = "10.3390/nu11010050",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
journal = "Nutrients",
issn = "2072-6643",
publisher = "MDPI AG",
number = "1",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Slow down

T2 - Nutrients

AU - Hawton, Katherine

AU - Ferriday, Danielle

AU - Rogers, Peter

AU - Toner, Paula

AU - Brooks, Jonathan

AU - Holly, Jeffrey

AU - Biernacka, Kalina

AU - Hamilton-Shield, Julian

AU - Hinton, Elanor

PY - 2019/1

Y1 - 2019/1

N2 - Slowing eating rate appears to be an effective strategy for reducing food intake. This feasibility study investigated the effect of eating rate on post-meal responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), plasma gastrointestinal hormone concentrations, appetite ratings, memory for recent eating, and snack consumption. Twenty-one participants (mean age 23 years with healthy body mass index) were randomly assigned to consume a 600 kcal meal at either a “normal” or “slow” rate (6 vs. 24 min). Immediately afterwards, participants rated meal enjoyment and satisfaction. FMRI was performed 2-h post-meal during a memory task about the meal. Appetite, peptide YY, and ghrelin were measured at baseline and every 30 min for 3 h. Participants were given an ad-libitum snack three hours post-meal. Results were reported as effect sizes (Cohen’s d) due to the feasibility sample size. The normal rate group found the meal more enjoyable (effect size = 0.5) and satisfying (effect size = 0.6). Two hours post-meal, the slow rate group reported greater fullness (effect size = 0.7) and more accurate portion size memory (effect sizes = 0.4), with a linear relationship between time taken to make portion size decisions and the BOLD response in satiety and reward brain regions. Ghrelin suppression post-meal was greater in the slow rate group (effect size = 0.8). Three hours post-meal, the slow rate group consumed on average 25% less energy from snacks (effect size = 0.5). These data offer novel insights about mechanisms underlying how eating rate affects food intake and have implications for the design of effective weight-management interventions.

AB - Slowing eating rate appears to be an effective strategy for reducing food intake. This feasibility study investigated the effect of eating rate on post-meal responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), plasma gastrointestinal hormone concentrations, appetite ratings, memory for recent eating, and snack consumption. Twenty-one participants (mean age 23 years with healthy body mass index) were randomly assigned to consume a 600 kcal meal at either a “normal” or “slow” rate (6 vs. 24 min). Immediately afterwards, participants rated meal enjoyment and satisfaction. FMRI was performed 2-h post-meal during a memory task about the meal. Appetite, peptide YY, and ghrelin were measured at baseline and every 30 min for 3 h. Participants were given an ad-libitum snack three hours post-meal. Results were reported as effect sizes (Cohen’s d) due to the feasibility sample size. The normal rate group found the meal more enjoyable (effect size = 0.5) and satisfying (effect size = 0.6). Two hours post-meal, the slow rate group reported greater fullness (effect size = 0.7) and more accurate portion size memory (effect sizes = 0.4), with a linear relationship between time taken to make portion size decisions and the BOLD response in satiety and reward brain regions. Ghrelin suppression post-meal was greater in the slow rate group (effect size = 0.8). Three hours post-meal, the slow rate group consumed on average 25% less energy from snacks (effect size = 0.5). These data offer novel insights about mechanisms underlying how eating rate affects food intake and have implications for the design of effective weight-management interventions.

KW - Appetite hormones

KW - Eating rate

KW - Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

KW - Meal enjoyment

KW - Memory for recent eating

KW - Satiety

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85059239457&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/nu11010050

DO - 10.3390/nu11010050

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - Nutrients

JF - Nutrients

SN - 2072-6643

IS - 1

M1 - 50

ER -